Jamdani is an ancient fine Muslin cloth with a geometric or
floral design. The origin of the word jamdani is uncertain.
One popular belief is that it came from the word Persian word Jamdani, which means, a vase of
flowers. ‘ Jamdani’ – the great characteristic of fine art in hand weaving.
A legend says that Emperor Aurangzeb went into a fit of rage when one day he saw his
daughter wearing nothing.
On his rebuke, she said she is wearing not one, but seven dresses covering his body. Such as the fineness of the hand-woven
Without any shadow of a doubt, it can be said that the art of making Jamdani designs on
fine fabrics reached its zenith during Mughal rule.
In India, Jamdani is produced in West Bengal and Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh.
There were handlooms in all villages of the Dhaka district. Dhaka, Sonargoan, Dhamrai,
Titabari, and Bajitpur for making superior quality Jamdani and Muslin.
The Mughal Emperor, the Nawab of Bengal and other aristocrats used to engage agents
at Dhaka to buy high-quality Muslin and Jamdani for their master’s use.
The demand for Jamdani and Muslin fabrics at home and abroad grew and this prompted further
improvement in their manufacture.
Manufacturing history of Jamdani Saree
The “Mughals” recognized the excellence, and acknowledged of Jamdani’s rarity. During the
region of Emperor Jahangir and Aurangjeb, the manufacture of finer Jamdaniwas a
rare product and a royal monopoly. There were two types Jamdani according to
region of manufacturing. The Weavers of Dacca were expert in Jamdani known as ‘Daccai
Jamdani; was continued to develop under the patronage of Nawabs of dacca
(presently under Bangladesh) and Jamdani is being produced in West Bengal and
Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh were they make Jamdani, named Tanda (also known as “Awadh
jamdani”) – a cotton fabric brocaded with cotton and sometimes zari threads
continued to develop unde the patronage of ; Nawabs’ Wajid Ali Shah in Tanda.
Manufacturing materials for Jamdani saree
Raw material: Karpash Cotton or silk thread.
- Hand Loom
Manufacturing Process for Jamdani Saree
- To produce pure cotton Jamdanis, weavers use cotton/silk blends, or other varieties of
- Yarns are dyed using herbal dyes.
- Jamdani is hand-woven on a loom made of bamboo, where the weaver sits in a trench or pit that is dug into the ground.
- One specialty of the Jamdani loom is that it does not make any sound while weaving.
- The creation of the warp and the setting up and dressing of the loom are similar to other
hand loom weaving techniques.
- In weaving, using a throw shuttle known as the maku, the base fabric is plain weave
- Traditionally an open weave that appear thin and has an element of transparency.
- Motifs: two weavers sit by side at the loom and every discontinuous supplementary weft
- The cotton thread used for opaque motifs is sometimes replaced by golden threads.
- The supplementary weft threads used are traditionally thicker and heavier than
threads used to use the base fabric.
- Those woven with a silk base often used to cotton threads to create the brocade design.
- A starch mixture is applied to the fabric after each meter is woven but while it is still on the
Structure of Jamdani saree
Mainly Jamdani is a plain woven fabric. Every woven fabric has a warp and a weft, threads that
go horizontally across. Jamdani has a supplementary weft that is introduced wherever
the design is to be placed and woven into that selected place only. It serves as
decoration and is not a part of the textile structure in the way that regular
arp and weft are.
Properties of Jamdani Cloth
- Very fine
- Smooth and soft
- Medium to lightweight
Ends Use of Jamdani
Jamdani is a kind of fine cloth, mostly used for saris. Todays the use of Jamdani is
versatile. Now Jamdani is used for making dresses ( Three piece, Panjabi, Kamiz,
tops), Scarves, ornas, handbags, Bed covers, pillow covers, curtains, wallmate