Flax fiber definition, uses and its properties

Flax fiber definition, uses and its properties


Flax Fiber

The Flax fiber
is classified as natural, cellulosic, bast and multicellular fiber. Flax is
also known as Linen. The yarn made from flax fibers is referred to as linen.
Amongst all-natural fibers Flax is the oldest fiber corps in the world.

Flax fibers are
grown in China, Belgium, Ukraine, France, Belarus, Netherlands, Egypt, the Russian
Federation, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Ethiopia, and Canada. Flax fibers
are graded on the basis of fineness, softness, strength, color, luster, length,
length uniformity and cleanliness.

Flax Production Sequence:

Flax Production Sequence


Polymer System

The Polymer
system of Flax is the same as that of cotton because both fibers are 
a constituent of cellulose, but Flax has a long-chain
polymer than cotton and its molecular weight is higher than that of Cotton

The
degree of polymerization of Flax is 18000(average) but cotton has 5000(average).
This means that every polymer chain of flax is made up of about 18000
cellobiose units, which are approximately 18000 micro-meter long and 0.8 nanometers
thick.

Flax is stiffer,
partly because of the cement which holds the fiber ultimately together. 

Fiber bundles
are made up of individual fibers of about 25 to 40mm in length, which are
cemented together by a mixture of lignin, pectin and hemicelluloses. It seems
that about 3 to 6 ultimate cells constitute a fiber cross-section.  

Cottonization of Flax Fiber:

Cottonization
of Flax is when fiber bundles are broken down to their ultimate by mechanical or
chemical means. These broken flaxes are called cottonization of flax. 

The length
of broken ultimate cells or individual fibers of about  25 to 40mm in length and these are cottonized
flax.

Physical and chemical properties:

Length: Normally
the length of flax fiber varies from 30 to 60 cm.

Strength: It
has an average tenacity of about 57.4 cN/tex.

Fineness: dtex(40-100)
& MIC: 3.5 to 5.8 (Cottonized flax)

Extensibility: The extensibility of flax, about 2% is the lowest of all apparel fibers.

Color: The
color of flax varies from light blond to brown.

Moisture absorption: Moisture regain is 12%.

Micro-organism: Compared to cotton flax has a high resistance to rotting.

Chemical properties: Chemical properties of flax are like cotton, Flax can be treated with easy care.

End uses:

The most important
application is in linen for clothing, fabrics, laces, and sheeting. Flax fiber
is also used in canvas, threads and twins, and certain industrial applications such
as fire horses.

Identifications
of fiber:

Burning test: Combustion:
Ouick, Bright, with afterglow.

Smell: Like
burnt paper.

Residue: pale
grey, powdery ash.

Microscopic
view
: Flax fiber can be identified by the longitudinal and cross-sectional views
of microscopic.

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